Q. How do I cite in APA?

Answer

This table shows some of the top things to keep in mind when citing in APA 6 and 7. At the bottom are links to the APA 6 and APA 7 Quick Guides, which have example citations for the most common types of sources. You can find even more information on our APA 6 and APA 7 Style Guides!

  APA 7 APA 6
At the top of the citations page... References References
Capitalization

Capitalize the first word, first word after a colon, and proper nouns in titles: Focusing “upstream” to address maternal and child health inequities: Two local health departments in Washington State make the transition

Capitalize all main words in a journal, magazine, or newspaper title: Maternal and Child Health Journal

Same as APA 7: 

Capitalize the first word, first word after a colon, and proper nouns in titles: Focusing “upstream” to address maternal and child health inequities: Two local health departments in Washington State make the transition

Capitalize all main words in a journal, magazine, or newspaper title: Maternal and Child Health Journal

Period or comma?

Periods after author name(s), year, title, publishers, page numbers, and the end of print source citations.

Commas after periodical title and volume/issue.

Same as APA 7: 

Periods after author name(s), year, title, publishers, page numbers, and the end of print source citations.

Commas after periodical title and volume/issue.

Italics

Italicize titles of books, periodicals, webpages/websites, and volume

Italicize titles of books, periodicals, and volume.
DOI, permalink, or URL?

Use the DOI (format: https://doi.org/xxxxx). If there is no DOI, for most books or articles from library databases, do not list a URL. For other works, use a hyperlinked URL that links directly to the cited work. For more guidance, see the APA Style page for DOIs and URLs.

Use the DOI provided. If there is no DOI, use the URL for the journal or publisher home page.
Author(s)

Two authors: Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L.

Three to twenty authors: Franco, R., Schoneveld, O. J., Pappa, A., & Panayiotidis, M. I. 

More than twenty authors (list the first 19 authors, an ellipsis, then the last author): Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., Botros, N., . . . Li, I.

Two authors: Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L.

Three to seven authors: Franco, R., Schoneveld, O. J., Pappa, A., & Panayiotidis, M. I. 

More than seven authors (list the first six authors, an ellipsis, then the last author): Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N.

In text citations

One author: (Walker, 2017)

Two authors: (Dorris & Erdrich, 2014)

Three or more authors (Wasserstein et al., 2005)

Include the page number(s) for a direct quote: "Medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines" (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112). 

When there is no author, use the title (shorten it if it's long): ("Study Finds," 2017, pp. 1-2)

For more examples see pages 264-265 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

One author: (Walker, 2017)

Two authors: (Dorris & Erdrich, 2014)

Three to five authors (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2016)

Six or more authors (Wasserstein et al., 2005)

Include the page number(s) for a direct quote: "Medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines" (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112). 

When there is no author, use the first few words of the title: ("Study Finds," 2017, pp. 1-2)

For more examples, see pages 171-179 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Secondary/indirect sources

If you read a work by Lyon (2014) in which Rabbitt (1982) was cited, and you were unable to read Rabbitt's work yourself, list Lyon's work in the reference list. In the text, use the following citation:

     (Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014)

If the year of the primary source is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation.

     …Allport's diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 258

If Allport's work is cited in Nicholson and you did not read Allport's work, list the Nicholson reference in the reference list. In the text, use the following citation:

...Allport's diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, p. 178

  • Last Updated Oct 09, 2020
  • Views 12
  • Answered By Laura Nagel

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